Iconographic similarities between Permian “goddess plaques” (Ural region, 7–8th centuries CE) and Horus cippi (Egypt, 8th century BCE – 2nd century CE)

Lloyd D. Graham

Abstract


The iconography of the Horus cippus, an amulet popular in Egypt from the late Third Intermediate Period to Roman times (8th century BCE – 2nd century CE), is unexpectedly recapitulated in bronze “goddess plaques” of the 7–8th centuries CE made by Permian peoples – Finno-Ugric groups from the Ural region of northern Eurasia. The likely explanation is that both templates are descendants of the widely-diffused “Master of Animals” motif, which originated in Mesopotamia during the Ubaid period (6–5th millennium BCE). Transfer of the Master/Mistress of Animals motif  from the Near East to the Ural region probably occurred via the Scythians of the 1st millennium BCE.

Keywords


Permian animal style, Perm bronzes, Horus cippus, Master of Animals, Mistress of Animals

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