The Emergence of the Liturgical Vestments of Western Christianity in the Late-Ancient and Early Medieval Iconography

Ángel Pazos-López

Abstract


The article explains some notes on the emergence of liturgical vestments into theiconographic representations of the Christian liturgy in Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. Tothat end, main historiographic problems and written sources which reconstruct the origins of theliturgical vestments of the Roman Rite are explained. Later on, a tour of some figurative examples,tracing the early visual history of sacred vestments, is proposed. These offer special attention to threethemes: In the first place, the presence of liturgical vestments in the mural programs and mosaics ofthe first centuries. Secondly, the representation of the clergy and their vestments in small pieces ofearly medieval ivory. Finally, the codification of the liturgical dressing in the development of theincipient manuscripts’ illumination of the 9th and 10th centuries

Keywords


Vestments; Liturgy; Iconography; Late Antiquity; Early Middle Ages

References


Alibert, Dominique, 1989, “La majesté sacrée du roi: images du souverain carolingien”, Histoire de l’art, 5-6, 23-36.

Ataoguz, Jenny Kirsten, 2007, The Apostolic Commissioning of the Monks of Saint John in Muestair, Switzerland: Painting and Preaching in a Churraetian Monastery, Cambridge, Harvard University, tesis doctoral inédita.

Barbier de Montault, Xavier, 1899-1901, Le Costume et les usages ecclésiastiques selon la tradition romaine, 1-2, Paris, Letouzey et Ané.

Batiffol, Pierre, 1919, “Le costume liturgique romain”, en Études de Liturgie et d'Archéologie Chrétienne, Paris, J. Gabalda, 32-83.

Belting, Hans, 1968, Studien zur beneventanischen Maleri, Wiesbaden, Steiner.

Beretta, Manuela, 2016, Il mosaico absidale della Basilica di Sant'Ambrogio in Milano. Storia dei restauri e nuove ipotesi interpretative, Milano, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, tesis doctoral inedita.

Bock, Franz, 1856-1871, Geschichte der liturgischen Gewänder der Mittelalters, Bonn, Henrij & Cohen.

Bonanni, Filippo, 1720, La gerarchia ecclesiastica considerata nelle vesti sagre, e civili usate da quelli, li quali la compongono, espresse e spiegate con le immagini di ciascun grado della medesima, Roma, Giorgio Placho.

Borgioli, Cristina, 2008, “A History of Church Vestments and Textiles through John Talman’s Drawings”, en Sicca, Cinzia M. (ed.), John Talman. An Early Eighteenth-century Connoisseur, London and New Haven, Yale University Press, 247-266.

Borgioli, Cristina, 2018, “Wearing the Sacred: Images, Space, Identity in Liturgical Vestments (13th to 16th Centuries)”, Espacio, Tiempo y Forma. Serie VII, Historia del Arte, 6, 169-196. https://doi.org/10.5944/etfvii.6.2018.21142

Braun, Joseph, 1907, Die liturgische Gewandung im Occident und Orient nach Ursprung und Entwicklung, Verwendung und Symbolik, Freiburg, Herde, edición en italiano de Alliod, Giuseppe, 1914, I paramenti sacri. Loro uso, storia e simbolismo, Torino, Marietti.

Brown, Bartan, 1983, «Enigmata Figurarum»: A Study of the Third Book of the «Rationale Divinorum Officiorum» of William Durandus and Its Allegorical Treatment of the Christian Liturgical Vestments, New York University, Tesis doctoral inédita.

Brown, Peter, 1995, Authority and the Sacred: Aspects of the Christianisation of the Roman World, London, Routledge, 55-56. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511802355

Brown, Thomas J., 1960, “The Benedictional of Æthelwold”, The British Museum Quarterly, 22, 57-59.

Buenner, Denys, 1934, L’ancienne liturgie romaine: le rite lyonnais, Paris, Vitte, 147-148.

Cabrol, Fernand y Henri Leclercq, 1907-1953, Dictionnaire d'Archéologie Chrétienne et de Liturgie, Paris, Letouzey-Ané.

Calahorra Bartolomé, Alfredo, 2018, “El marfil de Tréveris: una iconografía clave en el contexto de la propaganda político-religiosa del Triunfo de la Ortodoxia”, Erytheia, 39, 9-53.

Cameron, Alan, 2013, “The Origin, Context, and Function of Consular Diptychs”, Journal of Roman Studies, 103, 174-207. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0075435813000099

Cataldi Gallo, Marzia, 2018, “Sacred Vestments: Color and Form”, en Heavenly Bodies: Fashion and the Catholic Imagination, catálogo de la exposición, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 17-24.

Cavallo, Guglielmo; Giulia Orofino y Oronzo Pecere, 1994, Exultet. Rotoli liturgici del medioevo meridionale, Roma, Libreria dello stato.

Coatsworth, Elizabeth y Gale R. Owen-Crocker, 2017, Clothing the Past: Surviving Garments from Early Medieval to Early Modern Western Europe, Leiden-Boston, Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004352162

Cope, Gilbert, 1962, “Liturgical Colours”, Studia Liturgica, 1, 40-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/003932077000700403

Cutler, Anthony, 2007, “Il linguaggio visivo dei dittici eburnei. Forma, funzione, produzione, ricezione”, en David, Massimiliano, Eburnea Diptycha. I dittici d'avorio tra antichità e medioevo, Bari, Edipuglia, 131-161.

Dearmer, Percy, 1908, The Ornaments of the Ministers, London, Mowbray.

Décréaux, Joseph y Victor Saxer, 1985, Le sacramentaire de Marmoutier (Autun 19bis) dans l’histoire des sacramentaires carolingiens du IXe siècle, Ciudad del Vaticano, Pontificio Istituto di Archeologia Cristiana, 163-172.

Deshman, Robert, 1971, “Otto III and the Warmund Sacramentary: A Study in Political Theology”, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 34, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.2307/1481762

Deshman, Robert, 1995, The Benedictional of Æthelwold, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Elliott, Dyan, 2004, “Dessing and Undressing the Clergy: Rites of Ordination and Degradation”, en Burns, E. Jane (ed.), Medieval Fabrications: Dress, Textiles, Clothwork, and Other Cultural Imaginings, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 55-69. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-09675-3_4

Elsner, Jaś, 2003, “Inventing Christian Rome: The Role of Early Christian Art”, en Edwards, Catherine and Greg Woolf (eds.), Rome the Cosmopolis, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 71-99.

Euw, Anton von, 1985, “Liturgische Handschriften, Gewänder und Geräte”, en Ornamenta ecclesiae. Kunst und Künstler der Romanik, catálogo de la exposición, vol. 1, Koln, Museums in der Josef-Haubrich-Kunsthalle, 385-414.

Figurski, Paweł, 2016, “Das sakramentale Herrscherbild in der politischen Kultur des Frühmittelalters”, Frühmittelalterliche Studien, 50-1, 129-162. https://doi.org/10.1515/fmst-2016-0108

Fortescue, Adrian, 1914, The Vestments of the Roman Rite, London, Catholic Truth Society.

Gaborit-Chopin, Danièle, 1993, “Les ivoires du Ve au VIIIe siècle”, en Durant, Jannic (ed.), Byzance, l'art byzantin dans les collections publiques françaises, catálogo de exposición, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 42-45.

Gallart Pineda, Pascual Ángel, 2017, La visualidad artística del sacramento del orden en la liturgia de la Iglesia Latina (ss. XIII-XVIII), Valencia, Universitat de Valencia, tesis doctoral inédita, 587-593.

Goll, Jurg, Matthias Exner y Susanne Hirsch, 2007, Müstair: Die Mittelalterlichen Wandbilder in der Klosterkirche, München, Hirmer Verlag.

Grisbrooke, William Jardine, 1992, “Vestments”, en Jones, Cheslyn (et al.), The Study of Liturgy, New York, Oxford University Press, 542-547.

Hanssens, Jean-Michel, 1967, “Une pseudo-concélébration presbytérale de la messe”, Recherches de science religieuse, 55-3, 393-412.

Henry Parkes, 2015, The Making of Liturgy in the Ottonian Church. Books, Music and Ritual in Mainz, 950–1050, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 113, 177. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316014752

Hobbs, Richard y Ralph Jackson, 2010, Roman Britain Life at the Edge of Empire, London, British Museum Press.

Ivan Foletti, 2012, “Del vero volto di Ambrogio. Riflessioni sul mosaico absidale di Sant'Ambrogio a Milano in epoca carolingia”, Arte Lombarda, 166 (3), 5-14.

James, Raymund, 1934, The Origin and Development of Roman Liturgical Vestments, Exeter, Catholic Records Press.

Johnstone, Pauline, 2002, High Fashion in the Church: the Place of Church Vestments in the History of Art from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century, Leeds, Maney Publishing.

Kapustka, Mateusz y Warren T. Woodfin, 2015, “Clothing the Sacred: An Introduction”, en Kapustka, Mateusz y Warren T. Woodfin (eds.), Clothing the Sacred: Medieval Textiles as Fabric, Form, and Metaphor, Berlin, Imorde, pp. 7-11.

Keefer, Sarah Larratt, 2007, “A Matter of Style: Clerical Vestments in the Anglo-Saxon England”, en Netherton, Robin y Gale R. Owen-Crocker (eds.), Medieval Clothing and Textiles, 3, Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 13-40.

Kessler, Herbert L., 1977, The illustrated Bibles from Tours, Princeton, Princeton Univ. Press.

Klauser, Theodor, 1950, Der Ursprung der bischöflichen Insignien und Ehrenrecht, Paris, Scherpe-Verlag.

Knop, Eva-Maria, 1990, “Der Liturgiker als Liturge. Zu den Elfenbeintafeln mit Darstellungen der Messfeier in Cambridge und Frankfurt”, Ecclesia Orans, 7, 23-42.

Koenen, Ulrike, 2003, “Spätantik oder karolingisch? Zur Datierung der Elfenbeintafeln mit «Roma» und «Constantinopolis» und des Diptychons mit dem hl. Gregor und König David”, Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum, 46, 84-105.

Lameri, Angelo, 1998, La Traditio Instrumentorum e delle insegne nei riti di ordinazione. Studio storico-liturgico, Roma, Centro Liturgico Vicenziano–Edizioni Liturgiche.

Lowden, John, 2003, “Illuminated Books and the Liturgy: Some Observations”, en Hourihane, Colum, Objects, Images, and the Word: Art in the Service of the Liturgy, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 17-53.

Macalister, Robert Alexander Stewart, 1896, “The Vestments of the Easter Churches”, en Ecclesiastical Vestments: their Development and History, London, Stock, 175-191.

Magnani, Luigi, 1934, Le miniature del Sacramentario d'Ivrea e di altri codici warmondiani, Cità del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

Mambelli, Francesca, 2004, “Il problema dell'immagine nei commentari allegorici sulla liturgia. Dalla «Gemma Animae» di Onorio d'Autun (1120 ca.) al «Rationale divinorum officiorum» di Durando di Mende (1286-1292)”, Studi Medievali, 45, 121-158.

Marriott, Wharton Booth, 1868, Vestiarium Christianum: The Origin and Gradual Development of the Dress of Holy Ministry in the Church, London, Rivingtons.

Martimort, Aimé-Georges, 1984, “Vêtements et insignes liturgiques”, L’Église en prière I, Principes de la liturgie, Paris, Desclée, 195-203.

Martin Patino, José María, 1958, “El relieve litúrgico de la Stadtbibliothek de Francfort y su contribución al estudio de la misa romana en el periodo otónico”, Miscelánea Comillas: Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, 16, nº 29, 75-108.

McKitterick, Rosamund, 1990, “Women in the Ottonian Church: an Iconographic Perspective”, en Sheils, William J. y Diana Wood, 1990, Women in the Church, Studies in Church History, 27, 79-100. https://doi.org/10.1017/S042420840001202X

McKitterick, Rosamund, 1994, Books, Scribes and Learning in the Frankish Kingdoms, 6th-9th Centuries, Aldershot, Variorum.

Meates, Goeffrey Wells, 1987, The Roman Villa at Lullingstone, vol. II, The wall paintings and Finds, Maidstone, Kent Archaeological Society.

Merati, Augusto, 1963, Il tesoro del Duomo di Monza, Monza, Comune di Monza, 47.

Miller, Maureen C., 2014a, Clothing the Clergy: Virtue and Power in Medieval Europe, c. 800-1200, New York, Cornell University Press.

Miller, Maureen C., 2014b, Vestire la Chiesa. Gli abiti del clero nella Roma medievale, Roma, Viella.

Miller, Maureen C., 2016, “The Sources of Textiles and Vestments in Early Medieval Rome”, en Garver, Valerie L. y Owen M. Phelan, Rome and Religion in the Medieval World. Studies in Honor of Thomas F.X. Noble, London, Routledge, 83-100. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315607030

Mortara Ottolenghi, Luisa Bona, 1964, “Il Dittico di Davide e San Gregorio nel Tesoro del Duomo di Monza”, Arte Lombarda, 9, nº 1, 55-60.

Munier, Charles, 1960, Les statuta ecclesiae antiqua. Édition, études critiques, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France.

Norris, Herbert, 1950, Church Vestments: their Origin and Development, London, Dent.

Northcote, James Spencer y William R. Brownlow, 1879, Roma sotterranea: die römischen Katakomben, Freiburg, Herder.

Olovsdotter, Cecilia, 2005, The Consular Image: An Iconological Study of the Consular Diptychs, Oxford, John and Erica Hedges.

Pablos Villanueva, Antolín, 1935, Los ornamentos sagrados en España: su evolución histórica y artística, Barcelona, Lábor.

Palazzo, Eric, 1989, “L'enluminure à Metz au Haut Moyen Age (VIIIe-XIe siècles)", en Metz enluminée. Autour de la Bible de Charles le Chauve. Trésors manuscrits des églises messines, Metz, Serpenoise, 23-46.

Palazzo, Eric, 1993, Histoire des livres liturgiques. Le moyen âge: des origines au XIIIe siècle, Paris, Editions Beauchesne, 100-101.

Palazzo, Eric, 1999, L’évêque et son image: l’illustration du pontifical au Moyen Âge, Turnhout, Brepols, 196-197.

Palazzo, Eric, 2010, “Le livre-corps à l'époque carolingienne et son rôle dans la liturgie de la messe et sa théologie”, Quaestiones aevi medii novae, 15, 31-63.

Palazzo, Eric, 2013, “Une copie moderne du «Sacramentaire» de Charles le Chauve (Paris, BNF, Lat. 9447 et Lat. 1141), témoin du goût des collectionneurs du XVIIe siècle pour le Moyen-Âge”, en Elfassi, Jacques; Cécile Lanéry y Anne-Marie Turcan-Verkerk, Amicorum societas, mélanges offerts à François Dolbeau pour son 65e anniversaire, Firenze, Sismel, 501-514.

Palazzo, Eric, 2014, L'invention chrétienne des cinq sens dans la liturgie et l'art au Moyen Âge, Paris, du Cerf.

Pastoureau, Michel, 1989, “L’Église et la couleur. Des origines à la Réforme”, Bibliothèque de l'École des chartes, 147, 203-230.

Pazos-López, Ángel, 2015, “Culto y vestimenta en la Baja Edad Media. Ornamentos clericales del rito romano”, Revista Digital de Iconografía Medieval, 14, 1-26.

Pazos-López, Ángel, 2016, "Mitra episcopal", Base de datos digital de iconografía medieval, Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, en línea: www.ucm.es/bdiconografiamedieval/mitra-episcopal [consultado: 11/05/2019].

Pazos-López, Ángel, 2017, “Imagen y presencia de la liturgia sacramental medieval en el Tríptico de la Redención del Museo del Prado”, Eikón Imago, 12, 169-200.

Pazos-López, Ángel, 2018, “«Vestidos de Pontifical». La iconografía de las insignias litúrgicas episcopales en la Castilla bajomedieval”, en Herráez, Mª Victoria, Mª Concepción Cosmen, Mª Dolores Teijeira y José Alberto Moráis Morán, Obispos y Catedrales. Arte en la Castilla Bajomedieval / Bishops and Cathedrals. Art in Late Medieval Castile, Bern, Peter Lang, 355-376.

Pertegato, Francesco, 2019, Vestiarium. Le vesti per la liturgia nella storia della Chiesa. Antichità e Medioevo, Firenze, goWare.

Piccolo Paci, Sara, 2007, Storia delle vesti liturgiche. Forme, Immagine e funzione, Roma, Àncora.

Rasmussen, Niels Krogh, 1998, Les pontificaux du Haut Moyen Age. Genèse du livre de l'évêque, Leuven, Spicilegium sacrum Lovaniense.

Ratcliff, Edward Craddock, 1971, Expositio Antiquae Liturgiae Gallicanae, London, Henry Bradshaw Society.

Reggiori, Ferdinando, 1956, “Il mosaico della grande abside di sant’Ambrogio alla luce di recentissime osservazioni”, en Studi in onore di Aristide Calderini e Roberto Paribeni, vol. 3, Milano, Ceschina, 799-817.

Reynolds, Roger E., 1971, “The Portrait of Ecclesiastical Officers in the Raganaldus Sacramentary and its Liturgico-Canonical Significance”, Speculum, 46, 432-442. https://doi.org/10.2307/2851907

Reynolds, Roger E., 1983, “Image and Text: The Liturgy of Clerical Ordination in Early Medieval Art”, Gesta, 22, 27-38. https://doi.org/10.2307/766950

Reynolds, Roger E., 1990, “The Ritual of Clerical Ordination of the Sacramentarium Gelasianum saec. viii: Early Evidence from Southern Italy”, en Palazzo, Eric y Paul de Clerck, Rituels: mélanges offerts au Pére Gy, OP, Paris, Cerf, 437-445;

Reynolds, Roger E., 1999, “Clerical Liturgical Vestments and Liturgical Colors in the Middle Ages”, en Clerics in the Early Middle Ages. Hierarchy and Image, Aldershot, Ashgate, VI, 1-16.

Righetti, Mario, 1950, Manuale di Storia liturgica, Vol. 1, Milano, Àncora.

Rohault de Fleury, Georges, 1883-1889, La Messe, études archéologiques sur ses monuments, 1-8, Paris, Vve Morel.

Roulin, Eugène Augustin, 1930, Linges, insignes, et vêtements liturgiques, Paris, P. Lethiel- Leux, edición inglesa de Justin McCann, 1931, Vestments and Vesture: A Manual of Liturgical Art, London, Sands & Company.

Salmon, Pierre, 1955, Étude sur les insignes du pontife dans le rite romain, Roma, Officium Libri Catholici.

Schimansky, Dobrila-Donya, 1971, “The Study of Medieval Ecclesiastical Costumes: A Bibliography and Glossary”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, 29, nº 7, 313-317.

Schoenig, Steven A., 2016, Bonds of Wool: The Pallium and Papal Power in the Middle Ages, Washington, The Catholic University of America Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1gsmwbw

Schweinfurth, Sophie, 2013, “Creating Sacred Space as Cosmic Liturgy in Late Antiquity. Two Case Studies from Ravenna”, en Neuner, Stefan and David Ganz, Mobile Eyes: peripatetisches Sehen in den Bildkulturen der Vormoderne, Paderborn, Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 61-89. https://doi.org/10.30965/9783846756225_003

Surmann, Ulrike, 1990, Studien zur ottonischen Elfenbeinplastik in Metz und Trier: Nordenfalks Sakramentar- und Evangeliargruppe, Bonne, Wehle, 22-103.

Tugwell, Simon, 2007, “Caligae and Other Items of Medieval Religious Dress: A Lexical Study”, Romance Philology, 61, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1484/J.RPH.2.305822

Turpin, Pierre, 1938, “À propos d'un ivoirien qui aurait appartenu a l'abbaye de Marchiennes”, Bulletin de Comite Flamand de France, XI, 5, 123-136.

Valenziano, Crispino, 1990, “Usi e invenzione, reinvenzioni e senso della casula”, La casula: materiali e progetti della mostra concorso, Vicenza, Koinè, 18-27.

Vitella, Maurizio, 2006, “Sull'origine dei paramenti sacri”, en Palmeri, Liborio, Calogero Piro y Maurizio Vitella, Omnia parata. Le vesti liturgiche tra passato, presente e futuro, Trapani, Liber Artis, 2006, 15-18.

Vogel, Cyrile, 1986, Medieval Liturgy. An Introduction to the Sources, Washington, The Pastoral Press.

Voyer, Cécile, 2013, “Le sacramentaire de Marmoutier (Autun, BM, ms. 19bis) et l’abbé Rainaud”, en Brodbeck, Sulamith y Anne-Orange Poilpré, Journée d’études. La culture des commanditaires: l’oeuvre et l’empreinte, Paris, HiCSA, 158-173.

Walker Vadillo, Mónica Ann, 2014, "La presentación o dedicación de manuscritos en la miniatura", Revista Digital de Iconografía Medieval, vol. VI, nº 11, 53-64.

Warner, George F. y Henry A. Wilson, 1910, The Benedictional of St Æthelwold, Bishop of Winchester 963-984, Oxford: Roxburghe Club.

Wetter, Evelin, 2010, Iconography of Liturgical Textiles in the Middle Ages, Riggisberg, Abegg-Stiftung.

Woodfin, Warren T., 2012, The Embodied Icon: Liturgical Vestments and Sacramental Power in Byzantium, Oxford, Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199592098.001.0001

Woodfin, Warren T., 2015 “Disjuncture between Text and Image. Mystagogy and the Embroidered lconography of Byzantine Vestments”, en Kapustka, Mateusz y Warren T. Woodfin (eds.), Clothing the Sacred: Medieval Textiles as Fabric, Form, and Metaphor, Berlin, Imorde, 13-32.


Full Text: PDF (Español)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.